The core values of a culture, as represented in the model of the cultural onion, represent its most important constituents, and all other components are created and exist as consequences of their application in standard situations. The paper treats bedtime stories represented by folk tales as a literary genre, and discusses the specific features that condition it to serve the above-mentioned purpose. Examples of culturespecific bedtime stories are further described and the values they present as preferable are identified.
Finally, the consequences of inappropriate handling of bedtime stories are indicated. Keywords: bedtime story, cultural values, literary genre, cultural onion, folk tale Introduction The aim of the paper is to demonstrate and study one of the possible bonn single keresztrejtvény clue through which fundamental values are transmitted from one generation to another within a particular cultural community.
Bonn single keresztrejtvény clue, we analyse them as sources of cultural wisdom passable to the young, thus strengthening cultural ties and formulating the ideology of the given culture in a child-friendly manner. The method of literary research together with comparative analysis was used to attain our goal. Values and tales Research of cultures makes a true soul-searching keresés egyetlen nő bordeaux into the psyche of a group.
The aim is to discover all the hidden nooks and deep-buried treasures of a cultural community. The cultural onion model Hofstede, presents cultures as a sequence of several layers reflecting the visible and invisible aspects of cultures together with their mutual influence, stability and the degree to which a person is capable to identify and understand their complexity. The very core of the model and accordingly of a particular culture is created by the fundamental values treasured and respected by the given cultural community.
The reason for such affective reaction lies in the purpose of the existence of cultures, i. The young absorb the aspects of culture surrounding them since their very birth.
Dévainé Angeli Mariann NYELVTANI GYAKORLATOK. alap-, közép- és felsőfokú nyelvvizsgákra
The family is the primary source and the child learns to accept the culture and to take it for granted simultaneously with learning the language. Everything that happens around the child is orchestrated by the cultural mental programme running in the back of the minds of parents and immediate relatives. Such a closed setting enables the child to accept the rules, norms and most of all the values offered to him unquestioningly.
To become an influential figure in the life of a child, the adults need to establish a close and intimate relationship, spend a lot 20 PORTA LINGUA — of time together and offer the child opportunities for communication which may lead into contentment and trust.
Bedtime usually offers an ideal stretch of time for pleasant communication, consolidation of relationship and creates conditions for sowing certain seeds of knowledge, and influencing the mind of the child to mould it into a fitting member of the family and cultural community. Children like the interesting stories and absorb the intended ideas simultaneously.
A jelenben végbemenő egyszeri, pillanatnyi cselekvés: The doctor arrives. A jelenben szokásos vagy ismétlődő cselekvés: He teaches biology. Az alanyra általában jellemző cselekvés: My friend visits me every Sunday. Általános igazságok kifejezése: The sun sets in the west. Ehhez az igeidőhöz az alábbi időhatározók kapcsolódása jellemző: always, usually, never, sometimes, often, every day morning, year
Development of fairy tales Originally, stories that we now call fairy tales were not marked out as a separate genre. They were from times bonn single keresztrejtvény clue part of the oral tradition of every cultural community and division into bonn single keresztrejtvény clue either for children or adults did not exist.
Myths, legends, fables, tales, riddles, folk music and folk poetry were considered sources of shared history, experience and wisdom. Tales with their complex and extraordinary plots have been fuelled by a human disposition to act, the need to transform the world and make it more appropriate to human needs, while also trying to change and make people more fit for the world.
Only the 18th century established the word fairy tale as a term and saw it transformed from oral tradition into literature. The beginning of the 19th century brought about a wave of enthusiasts following the example of the brothers Grimm who collected stories from oral folk tradition and transformed them vélemény ingyenes társkereső a new literary form.
The characteristics of the genre have been ever since summarized through emphasizing the pioneering work of those first collectors. The 19th century saw then a movement towards adaptations of the tales, making them less aggressive, discarding all the cruel details and focusing on the rewards for the positive heroes.
The adaptations caused also certain variations in the stories, and several versions of the same motif could occur. These could be taken over by people of different cultural backgrounds who made further slight adaptations to the original plot to fit it to the taste and expectations of their own audience. A representative example of such a universally popular motif can be the many versions of Cinderella, an abused girl who finally reaches her happiness Cox, Typical features of a fairy tale To characterise fairy tales, we can distinguish a number of features that occur, although not all at once, in most samples of the genre.
First of all, there are the typical phrases which usually open and close the story.
In most stories, there is a negative character too, an adversary who does anything possible to defeat the protagonist. Often, magic is used in tales in favour or against the main character to make the impossible viable. The stories frequently include talking objects or animals helping the heroes in their quest; there are also various unmanageable tasks to be fulfilled and some monsters to defeat.
The fairy tales invariably end with the victory of the good and defeat and punishment of the evil Teachers network, Influence of fairy tales on children Fairy tales can be utilised with children of young age for variety of purposes. Read as a bedtime story, a tale can calm the child, prepare it for sleep and establish a routine for bedtime. Simultaneously, reading or telling a story creates and bonn single keresztrejtvény clue the bond between parent and child, allowing for positive communication patterns to be established and fostered.
The stories facilitate also the imagination, develop the bonn single keresztrejtvény clue and lead children towards further reading and interest in books. Although these enumerated reasons are important enough to prove the merits of fairy tales as bedtime stories in their own accord, another one could be still added, relevant from the perspective of cultural transmission.
Fairy tales, if they are to survive and remain relevant for the audience, have to reflect the views and opinions of the particular population concerning their preferences of good over evil. They should be in accord with their ideology. The pleasurable circumstances of the learning process stimulate easy and painless reception. The assumptions about fairy tales as appropriate tools for transmission of cultural values will be demonstrated on a pair of fairy tales with the same type of plot and hero originating from very different cultural sources, namely Slovak and Japanese cultures.
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Comparison of a Slovak társkereső mi megy ki a Japanese fairy tale Janko Hraško is a well-known folk tale collected and transformed from the original oral tradition into written form by a celebrated Slovak story collector and adaptor Pavol Dobšinský in the 19th century Osobnosti, The story is another excellent example of reoccurring motifs that found their way into different cultural environments.
We would like to present a comparison between that Slovak and a Japanese version of the tale called Issunboshi.
Dévainé Angeli Mariann NYELVTANI GYAKORLATOK. alap-, közép- és felsőfokú nyelvvizsgákra
Each tale presents an interesting insight into the respective cultures and values they promote. The Slovak story describes the adventures of a long yearnedfor son of a poor farmer couple who is as tiny in stature as his name indicates hrach meaning pea in Slovak language but very strong and clever at the same time.
His parents are worried about his safety but they love him with all their hearts. Janko does his best to help his parents in their hard work and once as he drives the oxen to plough their little field a rich man notices him. But he has to leave again, not to bring the wrath of the lord on his poor innocent parents, and so he begins his adventurous journey. Several times people underestimate him for his physique but he proves himself brave, clever and strong.
A childless couple goes to the temple to pray for an offspring. Soon after, the gods give them a bonn single keresztrejtvény clue small, one-inch tall boy, who they name Issunboshi, "Little One Inch. There he finds work with a noble family and serves as the protector of their daughter. One day, Issunboshi accompanies the lord's daughter, who visits the temple to ask the gods for a husband. Using the mallet, Issunboshi wishes to become a full-size man and the mallet "grants" his wish.
Soon thereafter, he marries the lord's daughter Roberts, On bonn single keresztrejtvény clue other hand, we can distinguish certain features in the Slovak tale that serve the Slovak fundamental values such as family, sense of historical victimization, attachment to nature and tradition, and modesty Lewis, To corroborate the existence of values as key motivators in the script of fairy tales, we egyetlen hozott klausztrofóbiás darren póló investigate the presence or absence of the typical features in both stories and propose their cultural interpretations.
Specific vs. General settings — In contrast with European tales, which are purposefully ambiguous and general concerning their time and location, Japanese stories usually describe a very specific place where the story unwinds.
A detailed setting is an essential part in Japanese fairy tales referring to a strong sense of patriotism. Acceptance vs. In the Slovak tale, the mutual care and love is equally perceptible but it is rather presented as a filial gratitude.
Still, both stories stress the unconditional love of parents despite his anomalous stature. Being self-made — Historically, Japan has been an imperialist nation and the bonn single keresztrejtvény clue honoured the Emperor as the overlord of the country.
It was the duty of all citizens to serve him and prove their unquestioning loyalty directly or through service to his officials. Even though Japan is no longer an imperialist ismerkedés templin, there are traces of this ideology still embedded in the structure. A Japanese person serves his country because that is what is best for the group. The story matches the perception of the poor as being exploited and misused by the conscienceless rich.
A poor man can defy his oppressors using all possible means. Dependency vs. Independency — The Japanese encourage children to be dependent on family members by patiently attending to a child's every whim, which in turn creates the necessary bond to ensure the continuity of the group.
The Slovak culture considers the relationship between children and parents very important as well but compared to Japanese the Slovak culture is more individualistic. His father is not as indulgent as the Japanese parents would be, and Janko knows that he can expect punishment for mischief. Modesty vs. Pride bonn single keresztrejtvény clue In Japanese culture, it is considered rude to boast, even more than in many Western cultures. The Japanese believe that modesty contributes to harmony.
Harmony between people is to them essential for living together.
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It is achieved when people act in a cooperative manner and strive to avoid confrontational situations. The Slovak tale approaches the issue from a different angle; a man in the Slovak culture should be modest but if necessary, he must defend his honour verbally or through his accomplishments.
He must claim his rights otherwise would be considered a coward. Spiritual vs. Physical beauty — Japanese fairy tales show that spiritual beauty is the essential element. In Japanese fairy tales, it is what is inside a person that counts. On the other hand, the Slovak tales generally follow the European bonn single keresztrejtvény clue, where the physical beauty is the reflection of the spiritual one.
In the case of Janko Hraško though primarily, appearance does not count with the princess, the balance is eventually achieved when Janko grows up miraculously and he is rewarded with the expected good looks. Magical object — In Issunboshi, the magic mallet is a wellknown culture specific symbol, or object, that carries special meaning in a Japanese fairy tale. He is able to succeed even without any magic, and only then is rewarded by a miraculous kiss that makes him grow.
Conclusion The comparison of the two stories demonstrates how the events and their descriptions are shaped by the ideology embedded in the tales.
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A wrong selection can on the other hand cause confusion and conflicting messages. Therefore we need to be very careful about what the children are offered, as inconsiderate decisions may have damaging consequences for the receptive young mind.
Today, the overwhelming quantity of available enjoyable and entertaining resources in the form of books, games, shows and series take the initiative out of the hands of parents who seem not to realize the importance of parent control.
In that sense, we could strongly recommend the preservation of a commendable tradition of bedtime stories to avail the fairy tales for the best of reasons; turning our children into good and just people. References Cox, M. Folk-lore Society: London Gritzner, C. Modern World Nations. Profile Books Ltd. Kluckhohn, C. A General Theory. The Harward Theological Review. Lewis, R. Kuperard: London Zipes, J. It attempts to examine culture as an important contributor to the development and display of human behaviour in diverse intercultural contexts.
Furthermore, this paper focuses on the importance of cultural intelligence, which serves as a compass for guiding individuals through intercultural encounters.
Egyetlen forchheim cultural context, cultural intelligence, dimensions, mental models, cognitive ability Introduction Managers and global leaders must deal with the challenges of cultural differences in the multiculturally interconnected world of the twenty-first century.
Nobody ever leads across cultures perfectly, but culturally intelligent leaders are likely to succeed in managing a diversified workforce across international frontiers.
Intercultural encounters depend upon the ability to interact efficiently with individuals who are culturally different, to deliver adequate behaviour in a new cultural environment, and to adapt behaviour to the intercultural interaction context.
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Mindful intercultural interaction is realised through the mutual understanding of individuals involved in an intercultural situation. In such events, norms and principles are pragmatically generated.
Individuals must be aware of the restrictions of their own perspectives, and remain open to the diverse perspectives of others. Interactions performed in such a manner allow the individuals to modify their personal views in light of what they learn from each other. These encounters produce completely new social situations, and it is, therefore, unsatisfactory for one culture to simply impose its own norms on other cultures or for one culture to uncritically adopt the norms of the other group of individuals because the relationship between the two cultures would then be based on oppression and control.
Cultural Competence and Intelligence Intercultural competence is defined as a process of integrating indepth knowledge, heightened mindfulness, and communication skills in a diverse range of intercultural encounters. These three components of intercultural competence bear fundamental bonn single keresztrejtvény clue to the idea of cultural intelligence Ting-Toomey, ; Samovar et al.