However, this is the sad story because you asked about the development of opera. The problem is that at Bayreuth and other places in Europe, whatever happens, it will all be sold out. In Europe the level is even lower than here. Here in Chicago you have the greatest manager, and you have excellent performances. My brother, who is a doctor who practices medicine here in Chicago, heard a Meistersinger last season, and he was immensely impressed.
Let me ask you LA: I had the great opportunity to sing with the very best conductors. Leinsdorf is the best conductor alive today because that man was assistant conductor to Toscanini, and he knows every language, he knows everything, and never makes a movement which is not necessary or superfluous. He never dances on the stage. I have the greatest respect, and I know the great conductors, and I despise very much the conductor that knows less than I do.
There are conductors who know less than I do! Can you imagine that? But the greatest problem is the stage director. I was in the opening performance of the new Metropolitan when we did Antony and Cleopatra. Regarding the stage direction, nobody understood a damn thing that was going on.
Assistent Walter Vromans herstelde van reuma
It was just something else, and even Zeffirelli was not always clear to me. Does that form any kind of conflict? Furthermore, whoever does that Traviata in that film has a form of publicity, and Domingo is not only paid well, but needs that publicity. Everybody needs it. Even Pavarotti needs publicity to remain on the top! Then the managerial machinations are also important. BD: Is opera art, or is opera entertainment?
LA: It should be definitely art, but people should look for that type of entertainment which is art. You can be entertained prestidigitator, or by dancing, but opera should be on a very high artistic level. Every high art is entertainment, because if you go to see a Michelangelo sculpture or a painting, that is highly elevating your mind.
Opera is art, first of all, and then it is entertainment. BD: Then comes the Capriccio question. In opera, where should be the balance between the music and the drama? The music should be there. However, we know many cases where Hofmannsthal, the librettist who was very important and inspired, sometimes was negating certain things. So, there must be a very close cooperation because that type of writing opera on a very simple, stupid and primitive story, was not done anymore.
LA: It should not be. On the contrary, flirt met de baas boek rest of the phrase is poi le parole [then the words]. Let me ask you about that. LA: That is a very interesting thing because Giulio Confalonieri extracted from Scipione nelle Spagne, a very long tragic opera, these four different interludes to have these kinds of conversations. That is what we recorded, and also we did it in Paris and in Brussels.
Fiorenza Cossottowho is a very famous singer now, sang in that. She was a very young woman at that time. BD: Are you pleased with that recording? LA: Not a hundred per cent. But it is a very interesting recording. The Così Fan Tutte is probably the best recording of that work, and I am very proud of it. What a formidable coloratura Tucker has there in that second ensemble. That is something absolutely phenomenal. Tucker was actually very modest, but at flirt met de baas boek same time resolute man.
BD: How does that recording of Così compare with the performances on the stage with that same cast?
LA: That was a very special cast because, first of all, we had one of the greatest stage directors who ever touched opera, Alfred Lunt, so actually it was very easy to record because we had been together so often. It went by itself, and Fritz Stiedry was a very congenial conductor Many people have told me that it is a very excellent recording.
I did it also in Italian with Schwarzkopf, but I believe that this recording with Eleanor Steber is the best Fiordiligi who ever lived.
BD: I very rarely compare voices against one another. I like to enjoy them all. LA: Yes, this is the most human, most artistic attitude, and I complement you in the name of all of us who are interested in this.
BD: [Smiling] Thank you. LA: Yes, but I hope that recording will never replace the theater. I believe in the theater. I believe in that immediate and personal contact with the audience.
I believe that the audience is part of the show. I believe that without an audience, you cannot perform a hundred per cent. We did it in the Vienna State Opera, and it was taken from the stage.
I like those kinds of things with all their faults and with all their mistakes and inaccuracies. That is an excellent performance. BD: Are the recordings that come out of the studio perhaps too perfect? For example, you cannot perform Così fan Tutte in Naples the same way as you do in the Metropolitan Opera. I have done it in both places, so I know. This nonsense of these love affairs is very entertaining, but when every word in Italian is understood, the reaction is different there.
The main course is always Aïda and Trovatore and Carmen and these kinds of operas. BD: Should we not, as a world community, try to enlarge the repertoire of main-course operas?
LA: Yes, but who will do it? Who is capable? Who can today compose a main-course opera? Now according to many people, Puccini and Strauss were the last ones. I think Wozzeck and Lulu are definitely an advancement. BD: Even though a Lulu performance will drive people out of the theater? LA: What people? LA: This is a most interesting question which you have brought up because Herbert Graf, the great stage director, made an interesting statement when he said that opera is theater, and the theater should have a hundred per cent impact on an audience at first hearing.
In this case, Lulu at first hearing cannot please and cannot satisfy an audience. At first, certain operas, certain paintings, and even certain buildings, and even certain human beings can only be appreciated if they can be compared with previous experiences.
For example, it is not conceivable that someone, who heard only Mozart and Donizetti operas should suddenly be interested in Lulu at first flirt met de baas boek. This is a very complex problem. Lulu, in my view, is one of the masterpieces. Whatever Stravinsky wrote is always a masterpiece, but only for those people who yearn to have a development, and realize that this development is in the hands of geniuses. Alban Berg was a genius, Stravinsky is a genius, but these people here who we commission and társkereső élővilág a lot of money on are not geniuses.
They are people who write such music that if I tear out two pages, then every student of composition in their academy can replace them. BD: Stravinsky is a genius? LA: Yes! BD: Berg is a genius?
BD: Verdi? BD: Is there a place on the operatic stage for operas by composers who are not quite geniuses? I do not believe that it is justified in Germany, where the theaters are subsidized by the State, that the theater has to put on each year one new opera by a living composer.
Sometimes it is a work like Die Soldaten [Bernd Alois Zimmermann ], which is all right, but mostly it comes out another way. I was in these theaters where the audience completely rejected the work, knowing that they have to listen to it because of the subsidy. Penderecki wrote an opera, which I heard two or three times, and it is flirt met de baas boek interesting BD: Are there some Italian verismo operas, or even romantic operas which you feel should be resurrected?
These new works are contortions and distortions. Generally, I have to sit through it because I know the composer, and I cannot say to him that it is a lousy piece. BD: [Persisting] But what about composers who are no longer living?
MeRSZ online okoskönyvtár
Are there some obscure Mascagni or Zandonai works that should be done? These operas were written for an interesting reason.
For Guglielmo Ratcliff, there was a tenor, Nino Bertelli [shown at right], with formidable top notes. At that time, all Europe was inundated with Johann Strauss operas, mulder scully dating the Viennese operetta became very famous and very popular.
Not one of these tenors was really beautiful, vocally, and when Bertelli came out and sang these high notes, people began enjoying it. They just wanted to hear these notes, ténymegállapítás garcon they enjoyed that. So, Mascagni wrote for him.
Now I will tell you something interesting about Luciano Berio. He was on flirt met de baas boek program about a year ago, and at that time he was nominated to be the artistic director of the Florence Festival.
He came to New York, and he explained what he was going to do. He put on a Rigoletto in which, in the first act, there were paintings of Stalin, Lenin, Hitler, and Mussolini. Bartoletti, who is your Artistic Director here in Chicago, [and later held that title in Florence], refused to conduct that Rigoletto. Then Cappuccilli refused to sing the title role, and Berio, who is a very talented man, had to resign his position. So actually we conservatives sometimes are winning, not because we want to, but the situation develops in our favor.
Do you know about such an opera which was not performed?
Gillian Flynn GONE GIRL. [Verloren vrouw]
LA: Yes, but these operas have been performed. Everything by Mascagni was performed. I heard, for example, La Notte di Zoraima by Montemezzi Now that is an opera which was very successful, though it was never performed here.
Now that is a good opera, but the audience at the Metropolitan did not take to it. He is one of the greatest operatic personalities who lives today, in my view, though not necessarily his music, but his knowledge of flirt met de baas boek.
His stage direction is phenomenal, and he knows everything. Should we revive Monteverdi, Cavalli, Handel? LA: If you have the bel canto singers, yes. It is very difficult to find the real bel canto singer for Cavalli and for Monteverdi, and there is nothing more horrible than distorted bel canto music. That is like if you would burn the steak instead of cooking it!
Voor Brett, zon in mijn leven senior en Flynn, zon in mijn leven junior Liefde is oneindig wisselvallig; het is een kluwen van leugens, haat en soms zelfs moord. Tegenstellingen komen er onvermijdelijk in tot bloei, als een prachtige roos die vagelijk naar bloed ruikt. En dan vooral aan de vorm ervan.
LA: I never had the time. I started in the San Francisco, then I had eight concerts in four weeks, and then I was in the Metropolitan, and I was there all the time. That was with Stich-Randall, incidentally. She was very good, and Capecchi was also in the cast. I sang in Italian, but when I sang the recitatives with Despina, I sang them in a Neapolitan dialect.
My mother was from Calabria, and I had a terrific personal success. Who is Lorenzo Alvary? He must be one of our colonials!